Both in the summary and the paraphrase we’ve quoted Curtis’s “clustering together in a ball that is dense” a phrase that lies in the centre of her description of wintering honeybees. For people to spell it out this clustering in every language aside from Curtis’s would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
Quoting Authoritative Language
You shall also want to make use of quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a professional or some prominent political, artistic, or figure that is historical you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to determine background information in a paper, along with your readers will tend to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, as well as your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay you could make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden that you might write on the importance of reading well:
It “is a exercise that is noble” writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, “and one which will task the reader significantly more than any exercise which the customs associated with the day esteem. A training is required by it for instance the athletes underwent. Books must certanly be read as deliberately and reservedly while they were written.”
By quoting a philosopher that is famous essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not merely would you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential thinkers that are american. The quotation has elevated the amount of your work.
You can even quote to advantage figures that are well-respected’ve written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:
a couple of scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer regarding the Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the expense of this space that is manned and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be far more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle that is former, says, “this indicates to be argued this 1 takes out of the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it is about $500 million a year.”
Note, first, that into the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to include remarks made by James Van Allen in to the discussion on space flight. Into the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy towards the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts about them of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both to ensure their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all:
James Van Allen, discoverer of this Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .
The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function would be to rename the nouns they follow by giving explicit, identifying detail. Any information on a person that could be expressed into the following sentence pattern could be converted to an phrase that is appositive
James Van Allen is the discoverer for the Earth’s radiation belts.
James Van Allen has decried the trouble of this space program that is manned
James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the cost regarding the space program that is manned.
Use appositives to spot authors that you quote.
Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences
Quoting just the right part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
As you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which can be especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you’ve run into listed here, authored by Robert Hutchins, former president regarding the University of Chicago:
If athleticism is harmful to students, players, alumni while the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They wish to be institutions that are educational nevertheless they can not. The story associated with the famous halfback whose only regret, as he bade his coach farewell, was which he had not learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, “friends,” presidents and even professors has tended to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often disregard the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing as well as the double educational standard cannot exist without having the knowledge together with tacit approval, at least, regarding the universites and colleges themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as “faculty representatives” in the college boards that are athletic. 4
Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that may enliven your discussion. You might want to quote part of the sentence that is following
These gentry often overlook the known fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.
Incorporating the Quotation to the Flow of your sentence that is own once’ve selected the passage you wish to quote, work the materials into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as you possibly can. Here is the way we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a president that is former of University of Chicago, asserts that “a college should not be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.”
Observe that we’ve used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we’ve used just the part of the paragraph – a single clause – that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence should never stand by itself – such as the following example:
Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. “These gentry often overlook the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.” But this type or type of thinking is bad for the university and also worse when best websites to buy essays it comes to athletes.
Even in the event that you include a parenthetical citation following the quotation, you shouldn’t leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is often jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the origin in a few other part of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you might write:
According to Robert Hutchins, “These gentry often disregard the known proven fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.”
“These gentry,” asserts Robert Hutchins, “often disregard the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.”
Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:
But Robert Hutchins disagrees: “These gentry often overlook the known proven fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.”
Use colons and also to introduce indented quotations (such as the examples above).
When attributing sources, try to vary the typical “states,” “writes,” “says,” and so forth. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: “asserts,” “argues,” “maintains,” “insists,” “asks,” and even “wonders.”
Using Ellipsis Marks quotations that are using made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the start and end of a passage not its middle – as was the way it is when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here is the main paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a sentences that are few
to read through well, that is, to learn true books in a spirit that is true is a noble exercise, and another which will task your reader significantly more than any exercise that the customs of the day esteem. It takes an exercise for instance the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost regarding the whole life to the object. Books should be read as deliberately and reservedly because they were written. 5