It is defined as a reduction in either the percentage of red blood cells (hematocrit), or a reduction in the concentration of hemoglobin in a sample of venous blood when compared with reference values. Iron deficiency is the most common of the general population.
Symptoms common to many types of this include the following:
- Easy fatigue and loss of energy.
- Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Pale skin.
- Leg cramps.
- In the United States, 2% to 10% of people have this disease. Other countries have even higher rates of anemia. Young women are twice as likely to have anemia than young men because of regular menstrual bleeding. This occurs in both young people and in old people, but in this the older people is more likely to cause symptoms and be related to serious, underlying conditions.
There are three major types , classified according to the size of the red blood cells:
- If the red blood cells are smaller than normal, this is called micro-tic anemia. The major causes of this type are iron deficiency (low level iron) anemia and thalassemia (inherited disorders of hemoglobin).
- If the red blood cells size are normal in size (but low in number), this is called norms-tic anemia, such as anemia that accompanies chronic disease or anemia related to kidney disease.
- If red blood cells are larger than normal, then it is called macro-tic anemia. Major causes of this type are pernicious anemia and anemia related to alcoholism.
Many medical conditions cause by this. Common causes of this include the following:
- Active bleeding: Loss of blood through heavy menstrual bleeding or wounds can cause this disease. Gastrointestinal ulcers or cancers such as cancer of the colon may slowly ooze blood and can also cause anemia.
- Iron deficiency anemia: The bone marrow needs iron to make red blood cells. Iron (Fe) plays an important role in the proper structure of the hemoglobin molecule. If iron intake is limited or inadequate due to poor dietary intake, anemia may occur as a result. This is called iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia can also occur when there are stomach ulcers or other sources of slow, chronic bleeding (colon cancer, uterine cancer, intestinal polyps, hemorrhoids, etc). In these kinds of scenarios, because of ongoing, chronic slow blood loss, iron is also lost from the body (as a part of blood) at a higher rate than normal and can result in iron deficiency anemia.
- Chronic disease: Any long-term medical condition can lead to anemia. The exact mechanism of this process in unknown, but any long-standing and ongoing medical condition such as a chronic infection or a cancer may cause this type of anemia.
- Related to kidney disease: The kidneys release a hormone called the erythromycin that helps the bone marrow make red blood cells. In people with chronic (long-standing) kidney disease (CKD or end stage renal disease(ES-RD), the production of this hormone is diminished, and this, in turn, diminishes the production of red blood cells, causing anemia. This is called anemia related to or of chronic kidney disease.
- Related to pregnancy: Water weight and fluid gain during pregnancy dilutes the blood, which may be reflected as since the relative concentration of red blood cells is lower.
- Related to poor nutrition: Vitamins and minerals are required to make red blood cells. In addition to iron, vitamin B12 and fol ate (or folic acid) are required for the proper production of hemoglobin (Hg b). Deficiency in any of these may cause of inadequate production of red blood cells. Poor dietary intake is an important cause of low fol-ate and low vitamin B12 levels. Strict vegetarians who do not take sufficient vitamins are at risk to develop vitamin B12 deficiency.
- Pernicious : There also may be a problem in the stomach or the intestines leading to poor absorption of vitamin B12. This may lead to because of vitamin B12 deficiency known as pernicious .
- Sickle cell : In some individuals, the problem may be related to production of abnormal hemoglobin molecules. In this condition, the hemoglobin problem is qualitative, or functional. Abnormal hemoglobin molecules may cause problems in the integrity of the red blood cell structure and they may become crescent-shaped (sickle cells). There are different types of sickle cell with different severity levels. This is typically hereditary and is more common in those of African, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean ancestry. People with sickle cell can be diagnosed as early as childhood depending on the severity and symptoms of their disease.
Prevention is always better than cure. You can prevent iron-deficiency by consuming iron-rich foods such as fish, poultry, eggs, meat, peas, beans, lentils, and potatoes.
Tips to improve iron absorption:
- Avoid drinking tea at the same time as iron-rich foods or iron supplements, as tea reduces iron absorption. Tea can be consumed 2 hours after taking iron supplements.
- Avoid taking iron supplements at the same time as calcium-rich foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whole-grain cereals as they reduce iron absorption. Avoid these foods within 1 hour before and 2 hours after taking iron supplements.
Iron may darken your stools. Do not worry if this occur
- Increase Vitamin C intake.
- Yogurt with Turmeric. …
- Eat more green vegetables. …
- Drink up. …
- Copper water. …
- Sesame seeds. …
- Raisins and dates